Friday, February 28, 2020

Women's rights Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Women's rights - Essay Example American Slavery. American women."( Fuller, 123). The previous year has seen movement in the Rhode Island council, to secure wedded ladies rights over their own particular property, where men demonstrated that a next to no examination of the subject could show them. To a great extent acknowledged, composed by a lady, instigated, it is said, by glaring wrong to a recognized companion, having indicated the imperfections in the existing laws, and the state of estimation from which they spring; and a reply from the loved old man, J. Q. Adams, in a few regards the Phocion of his time, to a location made him by a few women. These indications of the times have gone under perspective inadvertently: one who looks for, may, every month or week, gather more. The various gatherings, whose slants are now marked and balanced an excessive amount to their brain to concede to any new light, strive, by addresses on some model lady of spouse like magnificence and tenderness, by composing and loaning little arrangements, expected to check out with exactness the breaking points of Womans circle, and Womans mission, to anticipate other than the legitimate shepherd from climbing the divider, or the group from utilizing any opportunity to wander off. A high apex, or in any event a cathedral spire, might be attractive. It may well be an abolitionism party that argues for Woman, on the off chance that we think about only that she doesnt hold property on equivalent terms with men; so that, if a spouse bites the dust without making a will, the wife, as opposed to taking immediately his spot as leader of the family, inherits just a piece of his fortune, regularly brought him independent from anyone else, as though she were a tyke, or ward just, not an equivalent accomplice. The degenerate and unmoving men live upon the profit of enterprising wives; or if the wives abandon them, and bring with them the youngsters, to

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

Personal Strength Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Personal Strength - Assignment Example I remained quiet. I tried to bring a smile on my face to keep mum but everybody could tell that was fake. Soon, Bob joined in. â€Å"Kidco (he made an unsuccessful attempt to add the effects by calling me a child name), show them you’re a child not! Show them you’re a boy hot! Here, come light this cigarette. Blow the smoke and along, this girl away!† Everybody was like, â€Å"Ooooo Bobby gotta poet maaaan!† I said, â€Å"Sorry, if I smoke now, I would smoke my whole life! This girl wants a man living an inorganic lifestyle. I am happy I’m not her choice! And for you Bob, who said smoking turns you into a man from a child? It never does!† Bob said, â€Å"Kidco, I meant you don’ have balls to try this out!† I said, â€Å"I don’ have balls to carry it along for the rest of my life. It’s not a one time show. Once a smoker, always a smoker!† Pub, Jem and Bibby exclaimed, â€Å"And that’s the ultimate per spective!† When I asked Tina about my personal strength, she said it was frugality. She mentioned several of my habits that reflected my frugality and impressed her. She said, â€Å"See, you update the to-do list for the next day every night before sleeping, don’t you? You are always ahead of others in your studies, aren’t you? Whenever we start a new project, it’s you who assesses the risks and you do that job pretty well. You make sure everybody has carried everything along before we leave for partying. You always keep an extra pair of shoes, trousers and shirt with you in your car when you go out. When someone gets a wound, one person that everybody knows would be carrying the bandage in his pocket is you. When we go crazy teasing one another in our group, it is you who remains somewhat reserved. We can always tell that you think much before you speak something. You take extreme care to ensure that you don’t break anybody’s heart.† I said, â€Å"It s all general habits. Tell me of some particular incident that made you believe I’m

Friday, January 31, 2020

Alternative Assessment Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Alternative Assessment - Assignment Example Research has demonstrated that both the curriculum and performance based assessments played key roles in the development of individual skills among learners with the latter use, known to create awareness among the students and teachers thereby offering an avenue for more lessons. This also creates a system of consistent follow-ups as a track tool for the performance and academic development (Shinn, 1989). Performance assessment is a system in which students demonstrate that they have acquired mastery of specific skills and that they have competencies in a specified field by way of performing certain tasks (Espin, 2012). In view of this, students are gauged based on their achievements on a rather unconstrained response to a significantly rich stimulus resource material. This kind of assessment gained favor from a number of high profile individuals in the united state in the late 1980s with some advocating for a replacement of the traditional multiple choice assessments (Espin, 2012). Despite the extensive campaigns to have the system adopted by institutions of learning, it dealt a blow as efforts to have it installed were marred as it failed to capture an imminent role in so far as achievements of tests in schools is concerned. This was attributed to the fact that it failed to meet the threshold of standard-based accountability. Curriculum- based assessments on the other hand is a system of continuous monitoring of students’ daily progress in an academic setting through direct evaluation of their academic skills. This can be used to measure the student’s progress and achievements in written expression, spelling, reading and arithmetic (Lee & Owens, 2004). While conducting this kind of assessment, the instructor administers certain timed samples and academic materials that are taken from the curriculum based measurement. When such probes are given to students, they are subject

Thursday, January 23, 2020

deatharms Comparison of Death in Farewell to Arms and The Outsider (Th

Death in Farewell to Arms and The Outsider  Ã‚      Hemingway once said that "all stories...end in death." Certainly, each living person's "story" ends that way. The interrelationship of a narrative to a life, of the "boundary situation" of an ending, is of vital importance to the existence of these two fictional narratives, A Farewell to Arms and The Outsider. Death plays an important, one might say necessary, part in both novels, too: Frederic Henry is, of course, in war and witness to death many times, wounded himself, and loses Catherine; Meursault's story begins with his mother's death, he later kills an Arab, and then is himself tried and sentenced to death. In fact, the defining death-confrontations (Frederic's loss of Catherine, Meursault's death sentence) transform the characters into narrators; that is to say, the stories are told because of the confrontations with death. We must recognize that the fictive characters are attempting to provide or create an order or meaning where it appears there is none. Or, there are pre-exi sting versions, meta-narratives, which prove inadequate or unsatisfying, and which must be replaced by the narrative each character produces. Meursault responds directly and violently to the priest who represents one such meta-narrative for Meursault's life. In the crescendo of the final scene of that novel when Meursault confronts the priest and finally re- leases the pent up anger and frustration repressed for so long, he does experience an epiphany: As if this great outburst of anger had purged all of my ills, killed all my hopes, I looked up at the mass of signs and stars in the night sky and laid myself open for the first time to the benign indifference of the world. And finding it so much... ...s of The Myth of Sisyphus in The Outsider, and particularly to the discussion of the search for truth. In the Myth Camus goes through an inventory of accepted sources for truth and finds them all lacking: first he tries religion, but surprisingly it is too relative, for which god is god; second he tries science, but finds that it offers not precision but metaphor (the world is like...); third he tries logic, but finds that paradoxically it leads to contradiction (for if "all statements are true" is true then "no statements are true" must be one of the true statements). He is left with the "I" - not the Cartesian "I" - but the Humean "I" (a bundle of perceptions) as the foundation for a meaning system. That changing, evolving, non-static "I" is at the heart of both of these works. Works Cited: Hemingway, Ernest. A Farewell to Arms. New York: Simon, 1957.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Technology in Education

Software Support Tools According to Rogers (2008), â€Å"the landscape of the classroom is being transformed, with technology becoming a driving force† (p. 92). In today’s classroom there are numerous software support tools available to enhance learning and cater to the needs of all learners. Roblyer and Doering (2010) presented six categories of software support tools. They listed these as: material generators, data collection and analysis, graphics, planning and organizing, research and reference, and tools for the content areas. Material generators are software tools that are used for making instructional materials such as posters, brochures, quizzes, tests, rubrics, puzzles, worksheets, games, awards, and IEPs for special education students. Many teachers regard these tools as essential to the day-to-day operation of the classroom. Wellert (2008) stated that the use of games allow teachers to directly cater to the learning style needs of the visual and tactile learners, and that games can expedite the learning process when constructed with the different learning styles in mind. Data collection and analysis software tools allow teachers to collect information about their students and closely monitor their performance and progress throughout the year. According to Roblyer and Doering (2010), the electronic grade book is preferred by many teachers because of its special feature to analyse data from tests and print reports based on the information given. Student information systems (SIS) help teachers keep account of students’ data such as attendance and test scores. Roblyer and Doering also referred to computerized testing systems which offer benefits such as immediate feedback of results. Additionally, it allows students to take tests on screens or scanned sheets. According to the authors, these simplify test scheduling because everyone does not take the test at the same time. Graphic tools consist of draw/paint programs, image editing tools, charting/graphing tools, and clip art animation, sound, video, and font collections (Roblyer & Doering, 2010). These allow teachers and students to create, illustrate, modify, and combine drawings, illustrations, clip art, pictures, charts and graphs. They also give students the opportunity to create their own designs and show them on paper or screen. Additionally, teachers and students can insert these into documents and reports to give a more professional look. Catchings and MacGregor (as cited in Roblyer & Doering, 2010) believed that these programs aid in the development of students’ visual-verbal literacy and creativity. Planning and organizing software tools entails outlining and concept mapping, software, lesson planners, and scheduling and time management tools. Outlining tools assist students in outlining their story ideas and help them to get their stories started, while the other tools help teachers organize their time and prepare for instruction. Research and reference tools such as electronic encyclopedias, atlases, and dictionaries help facilitate research. Electronic atlases and maps are useful in the classroom because students get to see and learn information being taught, and are especially helpful because they are interactive. Wellert (2008) stated that students need to have active participation and involvement in lessons that include technology. Furthermore, student engagement is vital to ensure motivation during the learning process. Finally, the last category of software support tools put forward by Roblyer and Doering (2010) is content area tools. These support teaching and learning in the different content areas. Multimedia Multimedia refers to multiple media or a combination of media. Media can be still graphics, and photographs, sound, motion video, animation, and or text items along with products used to communicate information in multiple ways. Multimedia impacts the classroom in various ways. For example it increases motivation as it offers a variety of options for the user and encourages the learner to be proactive. For students who might not be strong in written expression but have visual aptitude, multimedia offers flexible learning modes. It also fosters the development of creative and critical thinking skills as it opens up creative avenues for students to apply higher thinking skills.. For those who struggle with organizing and presenting information, multimedia offers improved writing process as students are equipped to create characters and linking dialogue to it rather than simply creating a lengthy story. Creativity is encouraged by this process. The use of multimedia also decreases the time it takes to present lengthy presentations as information is presented in chunks as oppose to monotonous reports. According to Mayer and Moreno, 1998; Moreno and Mayer, 2002 (as sited in Roblyer and Doering, 2010) learners exhibited greater comprehension and retention of learned materials when pictures were accompanied by spoken words rather than by written words. They observed that the â€Å"split attention† effect was consistent with a model of working memory that had separate visual and auditory channels. As oppose to chalk and talk which rarely engage students, the use of multimedia encourages interaction and positive immediate feedback. Students are prompted when answers are incorrect giving them the option to correct their answers. Multimedia also provides easy navigation with clearly defined procedures. It is learner controlled for those who are less experienced as well as those who are advanced in technology. Color is also used to bring certain elements to the learner’s attention. Utility provides assortment of functionalities and features necessary to accomplish their instructional tasks, while usability deals with the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction of the user. Aesthetics on the other hand, represents elements of design which enhance or heightens the learner’s experience as oppose to just satisfying the pedagogical or instructional objectives. In addition (Lavie & Tractinsky, 2004; Wilson, 2005), research on emotion suggests that aesthetically pleasing objects positively influence our emotions which in turn help students to actively process material. Commercial multimedia products include instructional software such as tutorials, drills, simulations, instruction and problem solving tools. It also includes interactive storybooks and eBooks for toddler’s right up to adults. There are digital libraries, Google books, listening to books online, Grimm Fairy Tales as well as Clifford Interactive Storybooks. In addition to these, these products include reference materials such as Encarta (Encyclopedia), Almanacs, Atlases, newspapers and newsletters, collection of development resources like Clip art, Audio clips, Video clips and Animations, all of which can be used for learning. When producing power points and graphics, fancy fonts and animation can all be incorporated. Multimedia tools also provide editing systems which allows the polishing of the end product. The question about how to effectively integrate support tools, multimedia, and hypermedia into teaching and learning for the highest potential relative advantage, this question can be answered by simply choosing the right tools to meet specific needs of the audience being taught. It is no longer debatable whether or not these tools are relevant, but which tools are relevant for what and who is being taught. Hypermedia According to (Roblyer and Doering, 2010), Hypermedia is also known as â€Å"linked media†. It is a system in which information stored in various media is connected, often through the internet. Most multimedia products are also hypermedia products. There exist a synonymous connection of their uses and alternative purpose. The ability to get information using multimedia tools, from one media element to another, makes them hypermedia. There are six kinds of hypermedia formats, such as: commercial hypermedia software, presentation software, video production and editing systems, hypermedia design and development software, virtual reality environments and Web 2. 0. Hypermedia has been impacting the educational system in many ways. Students are able to attend classes in the comfort of their home. Teachers are able to peruse through a wide variety of activities to effectively and efficiently deliver lessons. Hypermedia is geared at providing multiple channels by which students are able to learn and process information. It has been stated by researchers that students who learn through verbal and visual means are better able to solve problems in comparison to those who learn only through verbal means. In using hypermedia in the classroom, it saves time. Students and teachers are able to search through multiple types of information in a short length of time, with little or no cost. It can be stressful and frustrating for those who are not fully equipped with the skills of navigating. Users can also use hypermedia to add, modify or share information. The software is designed to be easy to use and understand. The programs available can incorporate video and audio of CD’s and DVD’s on the web. This creates a merger of both concepts which can realize learning at its maximum relative advantage. In considering Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences, we can integrate support tools multimedia and hypermedia into teaching and learning. This can be done in various ways. Software programs that supports tutorials, drill and practice, simulation, instructional games and problem solving can all be incorporated using an interactive approach. Students as well as teachers are motivated to learn and present information. According to Edyburn (as cited in Roblyer & Doering, 2010), the accessibility capabilities of special needs students are often challenging. Special programs are provided along with software for these students, but in order to use the programs, one must be especially skilled. Roblyer and Doering (2010), further stated that in order for hypermedia to be used effectively, some hardware are needed in order for the software to function, such as: computer with keyboard, mouse and monitor, digital cameras, scanners, video digitizers, camcorders and other video output, microphones and audio speakers. Financial resources are necessary for this system to take place. Adobe Flash Reader has become the standard for creating interactive web based animation and other software tools. Flexible learning modes exist but teachers must carefully select programs that promote higher order thinking, which are few in the case of reading and language. The response based methods are critical and students are able to use their creativity to access information. Students can also make the distinction between various texts and think critically about which is appropriate and applicable. Teachers are able to assess students based on the outcome of assigned projects while challenging them to learn independently at times. Students use the Web 2. 0, and presentation software such as Microsoft Power point Presentation to deliver work the way they understand. Hypermedia helps students to generate new ideas, raise the bar for creativity and independence and thus provide a, variety of sources which students can use to understand and interpret information, thus reaching their highest potential relative advantage. Factors Influencing the Effective Integration of Technology Gorder (2008) stated that integrating technology is not about having technology available in the classroom, but more about how teachers use technology as a tool for learning. To effectively and successfully integrate support tools, multimedia and hypermedia into teaching and learning for the highest potential relative advantage, certain factors need to be considered. Franklin (2008) outlined four factors that influence the integration of technology: availability and access to technology, teacher preparation and training, good leadership, and time. According to the National Center for Education Statistics (as cited in Franklin, 2008), the availability of classroom technology correlates to teacher use of computers. This means that when more computers are available in the classroom, teachers tend to incorporate more activities involving technology. While the average elementary classroom in the United States has two computers (NCES, as cited in Franklin, 2008), classrooms in Belize are yet to experience that luxury. Access to computers in Belizean elementary schools is very limited, often through a computer lab. Oftentimes many of these computers are outdated, or not working. The lack of hardware and software tools do very little to promote the use and integration of technology in education. Teacher preparation and training is also an important factor in the effective integration of technology. Franklin (2008) indicated that teachers who feel better prepared to use technology are more likely to have their students use technology than teachers who feel unprepared. With the advent of numerous new technological advances, more experienced teachers are feeling unprepared to face the technological world. The NCES (as cited in Franklin, 2008) reported that only one third of elementary teachers in the United States felt they were well prepared to use technology in the classroom. Gorder (2008) referred to this as a change from educating students for the industrial age, to one of educating students for the technological age. This change will require teachers to become students again, seeking assistance from fellow teachers as well as from their own students. In light of this change, Ash (2007) felt that for teachers to implement technology effectively in the classroom there needs to be some form of professional development. Ash reported that in order to meet the professional development needs of teachers, some school districts have encouraged teachers to form on-line learning communities with their colleagues where they can seek technology advice, share resources and tips. Additionally, Ash suggested having a technology specialist on staff to assist teachers with new technology as well as to provide training for teachers in the form of after school training and workshops. Pitler (2006) said that most importantly teachers need to be provided with ongoing technology professional development. Ash (2007) believed strong leadership is required to effectively integrate technology into teaching and learning and considered the principal as the key factor to ensuring the successful integration of technology into the school curriculum. Hope and Stakenas (as cited by Gosmire & Grady, 2007) suggested three primary roles for the principal as technology leader: role model, instructional leader, and visionary. They stated that principals themselves need to have a good working knowledge of technology tools and be able to use these for their own administrative and managerial duties. When principals have a good working knowledge of technology they are more committed to its importance in teaching and learning and tend to impart this to their teachers (Franklin, 2008). Furthermore, principals are the instructional leaders of the school and are primarily responsible for overseeing technology integration. As a result, principals need to have a good knowledge of technology hardware and software to be able to acquire those that best fit the needs of their school. Hope and Stakenas emphasized that the most important thing is for principals to have a vision for technology in their school. They need to have a clear understanding of how technology will be used by teachers and students to better facilitate teaching and learning. Franklin concluded that principals who provide strong leadership â€Å"help create a climate in which experimentation with technology is looked on with favour and given encouragement† (p. 55). Finally, the fourth factor that influences the integration of technology is time. Franklin (2008) believed that for technology integration to be effective it is necessary to provide the time for teachers to learn, practice, and plan how they will integrate technology into the curriculum. She stated that this might, at times, require teachers to be released from their regular classroom duties in order to facilitate this experience. Apart from the time teachers need to learn and plan for technology, students also need time to use technology. Franklin indicated that time needs to be placed in the daily schedule when students will be using technology. Schacter and Fagnano (1999) also suggested several practices to aid in the successful implementation of technology in the classroom. These include: (a) getting students involved in discussions and debates where they will be required to work with a team to evaluate their work, as well as the work of others, (b) allowing students to analyse situations and think independently through self reflection and thought, (c) getting students to design programs that encourage critical thinking, judgement, and personal involvement, (d) using project-based learning activities, (e) engaging students in contextualized and meaningful projects, and (f) teaching students how to use computers to design projects. The authors emphasized that the effective use of technology increases students’ learning, understanding, achievement and motivation as well as develops their critical thinking and problem solving skills. Conclusion Hence, it is clear that in order to integrate technology into teaching and learning for the highest potential relative advantage, it is not just about having the technology and being knowledgeable about its use and benefits, but also about having a vision and plan of how technology will be integrated into the school curriculum and providing the necessary training for teachers. Pitler (2006) stated that all the new technologies in the world will not impact student achievement if the school does not have a clear vision of how and why they will use the technology. It is important to understand that the acquisition of technology alone will not improve the quality of instruction. Day (2010) emphasizes that â€Å"the fundamental determinants of instructional quality have always been the course content, the teachers, the learning activities in which the students are engaged and the students themselves† (p. 49). Technology in Education Software Support Tools According to Rogers (2008), â€Å"the landscape of the classroom is being transformed, with technology becoming a driving force† (p. 92). In today’s classroom there are numerous software support tools available to enhance learning and cater to the needs of all learners. Roblyer and Doering (2010) presented six categories of software support tools. They listed these as: material generators, data collection and analysis, graphics, planning and organizing, research and reference, and tools for the content areas. Material generators are software tools that are used for making instructional materials such as posters, brochures, quizzes, tests, rubrics, puzzles, worksheets, games, awards, and IEPs for special education students. Many teachers regard these tools as essential to the day-to-day operation of the classroom. Wellert (2008) stated that the use of games allow teachers to directly cater to the learning style needs of the visual and tactile learners, and that games can expedite the learning process when constructed with the different learning styles in mind. Data collection and analysis software tools allow teachers to collect information about their students and closely monitor their performance and progress throughout the year. According to Roblyer and Doering (2010), the electronic grade book is preferred by many teachers because of its special feature to analyse data from tests and print reports based on the information given. Student information systems (SIS) help teachers keep account of students’ data such as attendance and test scores. Roblyer and Doering also referred to computerized testing systems which offer benefits such as immediate feedback of results. Additionally, it allows students to take tests on screens or scanned sheets. According to the authors, these simplify test scheduling because everyone does not take the test at the same time. Graphic tools consist of draw/paint programs, image editing tools, charting/graphing tools, and clip art animation, sound, video, and font collections (Roblyer & Doering, 2010). These allow teachers and students to create, illustrate, modify, and combine drawings, illustrations, clip art, pictures, charts and graphs. They also give students the opportunity to create their own designs and show them on paper or screen. Additionally, teachers and students can insert these into documents and reports to give a more professional look. Catchings and MacGregor (as cited in Roblyer & Doering, 2010) believed that these programs aid in the development of students’ visual-verbal literacy and creativity. Planning and organizing software tools entails outlining and concept mapping, software, lesson planners, and scheduling and time management tools. Outlining tools assist students in outlining their story ideas and help them to get their stories started, while the other tools help teachers organize their time and prepare for instruction. Research and reference tools such as electronic encyclopedias, atlases, and dictionaries help facilitate research. Electronic atlases and maps are useful in the classroom because students get to see and learn information being taught, and are especially helpful because they are interactive. Wellert (2008) stated that students need to have active participation and involvement in lessons that include technology. Furthermore, student engagement is vital to ensure motivation during the learning process. Finally, the last category of software support tools put forward by Roblyer and Doering (2010) is content area tools. These support teaching and learning in the different content areas. Multimedia Multimedia refers to multiple media or a combination of media. Media can be still graphics, and photographs, sound, motion video, animation, and or text items along with products used to communicate information in multiple ways. Multimedia impacts the classroom in various ways. For example it increases motivation as it offers a variety of options for the user and encourages the learner to be proactive. For students who might not be strong in written expression but have visual aptitude, multimedia offers flexible learning modes. It also fosters the development of creative and critical thinking skills as it opens up creative avenues for students to apply higher thinking skills.. For those who struggle with organizing and presenting information, multimedia offers improved writing process as students are equipped to create characters and linking dialogue to it rather than simply creating a lengthy story. Creativity is encouraged by this process. The use of multimedia also decreases the time it takes to present lengthy presentations as information is presented in chunks as oppose to monotonous reports. According to Mayer and Moreno, 1998; Moreno and Mayer, 2002 (as sited in Roblyer and Doering, 2010) learners exhibited greater comprehension and retention of learned materials when pictures were accompanied by spoken words rather than by written words. They observed that the â€Å"split attention† effect was consistent with a model of working memory that had separate visual and auditory channels. As oppose to chalk and talk which rarely engage students, the use of multimedia encourages interaction and positive immediate feedback. Students are prompted when answers are incorrect giving them the option to correct their answers. Multimedia also provides easy navigation with clearly defined procedures. It is learner controlled for those who are less experienced as well as those who are advanced in technology. Color is also used to bring certain elements to the learner’s attention. Utility provides assortment of functionalities and features necessary to accomplish their instructional tasks, while usability deals with the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction of the user. Aesthetics on the other hand, represents elements of design which enhance or heightens the learner’s experience as oppose to just satisfying the pedagogical or instructional objectives. In addition (Lavie & Tractinsky, 2004; Wilson, 2005), research on emotion suggests that aesthetically pleasing objects positively influence our emotions which in turn help students to actively process material. Commercial multimedia products include instructional software such as tutorials, drills, simulations, instruction and problem solving tools. It also includes interactive storybooks and eBooks for toddler’s right up to adults. There are digital libraries, Google books, listening to books online, Grimm Fairy Tales as well as Clifford Interactive Storybooks. In addition to these, these products include reference materials such as Encarta (Encyclopedia), Almanacs, Atlases, newspapers and newsletters, collection of development resources like Clip art, Audio clips, Video clips and Animations, all of which can be used for learning. When producing power points and graphics, fancy fonts and animation can all be incorporated. Multimedia tools also provide editing systems which allows the polishing of the end product. The question about how to effectively integrate support tools, multimedia, and hypermedia into teaching and learning for the highest potential relative advantage, this question can be answered by simply choosing the right tools to meet specific needs of the audience being taught. It is no longer debatable whether or not these tools are relevant, but which tools are relevant for what and who is being taught. Hypermedia According to (Roblyer and Doering, 2010), Hypermedia is also known as â€Å"linked media†. It is a system in which information stored in various media is connected, often through the internet. Most multimedia products are also hypermedia products. There exist a synonymous connection of their uses and alternative purpose. The ability to get information using multimedia tools, from one media element to another, makes them hypermedia. There are six kinds of hypermedia formats, such as: commercial hypermedia software, presentation software, video production and editing systems, hypermedia design and development software, virtual reality environments and Web 2. 0. Hypermedia has been impacting the educational system in many ways. Students are able to attend classes in the comfort of their home. Teachers are able to peruse through a wide variety of activities to effectively and efficiently deliver lessons. Hypermedia is geared at providing multiple channels by which students are able to learn and process information. It has been stated by researchers that students who learn through verbal and visual means are better able to solve problems in comparison to those who learn only through verbal means. In using hypermedia in the classroom, it saves time. Students and teachers are able to search through multiple types of information in a short length of time, with little or no cost. It can be stressful and frustrating for those who are not fully equipped with the skills of navigating. Users can also use hypermedia to add, modify or share information. The software is designed to be easy to use and understand. The programs available can incorporate video and audio of CD’s and DVD’s on the web. This creates a merger of both concepts which can realize learning at its maximum relative advantage. In considering Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences, we can integrate support tools multimedia and hypermedia into teaching and learning. This can be done in various ways. Software programs that supports tutorials, drill and practice, simulation, instructional games and problem solving can all be incorporated using an interactive approach. Students as well as teachers are motivated to learn and present information. According to Edyburn (as cited in Roblyer & Doering, 2010), the accessibility capabilities of special needs students are often challenging. Special programs are provided along with software for these students, but in order to use the programs, one must be especially skilled. Roblyer and Doering (2010), further stated that in order for hypermedia to be used effectively, some hardware are needed in order for the software to function, such as: computer with keyboard, mouse and monitor, digital cameras, scanners, video digitizers, camcorders and other video output, microphones and audio speakers. Financial resources are necessary for this system to take place. Adobe Flash Reader has become the standard for creating interactive web based animation and other software tools. Flexible learning modes exist but teachers must carefully select programs that promote higher order thinking, which are few in the case of reading and language. The response based methods are critical and students are able to use their creativity to access information. Students can also make the distinction between various texts and think critically about which is appropriate and applicable. Teachers are able to assess students based on the outcome of assigned projects while challenging them to learn independently at times. Students use the Web 2. 0, and presentation software such as Microsoft Power point Presentation to deliver work the way they understand. Hypermedia helps students to generate new ideas, raise the bar for creativity and independence and thus provide a, variety of sources which students can use to understand and interpret information, thus reaching their highest potential relative advantage. Factors Influencing the Effective Integration of Technology Gorder (2008) stated that integrating technology is not about having technology available in the classroom, but more about how teachers use technology as a tool for learning. To effectively and successfully integrate support tools, multimedia and hypermedia into teaching and learning for the highest potential relative advantage, certain factors need to be considered. Franklin (2008) outlined four factors that influence the integration of technology: availability and access to technology, teacher preparation and training, good leadership, and time. According to the National Center for Education Statistics (as cited in Franklin, 2008), the availability of classroom technology correlates to teacher use of computers. This means that when more computers are available in the classroom, teachers tend to incorporate more activities involving technology. While the average elementary classroom in the United States has two computers (NCES, as cited in Franklin, 2008), classrooms in Belize are yet to experience that luxury. Access to computers in Belizean elementary schools is very limited, often through a computer lab. Oftentimes many of these computers are outdated, or not working. The lack of hardware and software tools do very little to promote the use and integration of technology in education. Teacher preparation and training is also an important factor in the effective integration of technology. Franklin (2008) indicated that teachers who feel better prepared to use technology are more likely to have their students use technology than teachers who feel unprepared. With the advent of numerous new technological advances, more experienced teachers are feeling unprepared to face the technological world. The NCES (as cited in Franklin, 2008) reported that only one third of elementary teachers in the United States felt they were well prepared to use technology in the classroom. Gorder (2008) referred to this as a change from educating students for the industrial age, to one of educating students for the technological age. This change will require teachers to become students again, seeking assistance from fellow teachers as well as from their own students. In light of this change, Ash (2007) felt that for teachers to implement technology effectively in the classroom there needs to be some form of professional development. Ash reported that in order to meet the professional development needs of teachers, some school districts have encouraged teachers to form on-line learning communities with their colleagues where they can seek technology advice, share resources and tips. Additionally, Ash suggested having a technology specialist on staff to assist teachers with new technology as well as to provide training for teachers in the form of after school training and workshops. Pitler (2006) said that most importantly teachers need to be provided with ongoing technology professional development. Ash (2007) believed strong leadership is required to effectively integrate technology into teaching and learning and considered the principal as the key factor to ensuring the successful integration of technology into the school curriculum. Hope and Stakenas (as cited by Gosmire & Grady, 2007) suggested three primary roles for the principal as technology leader: role model, instructional leader, and visionary. They stated that principals themselves need to have a good working knowledge of technology tools and be able to use these for their own administrative and managerial duties. When principals have a good working knowledge of technology they are more committed to its importance in teaching and learning and tend to impart this to their teachers (Franklin, 2008). Furthermore, principals are the instructional leaders of the school and are primarily responsible for overseeing technology integration. As a result, principals need to have a good knowledge of technology hardware and software to be able to acquire those that best fit the needs of their school. Hope and Stakenas emphasized that the most important thing is for principals to have a vision for technology in their school. They need to have a clear understanding of how technology will be used by teachers and students to better facilitate teaching and learning. Franklin concluded that principals who provide strong leadership â€Å"help create a climate in which experimentation with technology is looked on with favour and given encouragement† (p. 55). Finally, the fourth factor that influences the integration of technology is time. Franklin (2008) believed that for technology integration to be effective it is necessary to provide the time for teachers to learn, practice, and plan how they will integrate technology into the curriculum. She stated that this might, at times, require teachers to be released from their regular classroom duties in order to facilitate this experience. Apart from the time teachers need to learn and plan for technology, students also need time to use technology. Franklin indicated that time needs to be placed in the daily schedule when students will be using technology. Schacter and Fagnano (1999) also suggested several practices to aid in the successful implementation of technology in the classroom. These include: (a) getting students involved in discussions and debates where they will be required to work with a team to evaluate their work, as well as the work of others, (b) allowing students to analyse situations and think independently through self reflection and thought, (c) getting students to design programs that encourage critical thinking, judgement, and personal involvement, (d) using project-based learning activities, (e) engaging students in contextualized and meaningful projects, and (f) teaching students how to use computers to design projects. The authors emphasized that the effective use of technology increases students’ learning, understanding, achievement and motivation as well as develops their critical thinking and problem solving skills. Conclusion Hence, it is clear that in order to integrate technology into teaching and learning for the highest potential relative advantage, it is not just about having the technology and being knowledgeable about its use and benefits, but also about having a vision and plan of how technology will be integrated into the school curriculum and providing the necessary training for teachers. Pitler (2006) stated that all the new technologies in the world will not impact student achievement if the school does not have a clear vision of how and why they will use the technology. It is important to understand that the acquisition of technology alone will not improve the quality of instruction. Day (2010) emphasizes that â€Å"the fundamental determinants of instructional quality have always been the course content, the teachers, the learning activities in which the students are engaged and the students themselves† (p. 49).

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Causes of Street Crime - 746 Words

Causes of street crimes The major causes are unemployment and illiteracy rate but there are some other factors too like lawlessness, fundamentalism, backwardness and double standards prevailing in the society. People around the world always think of Pakistannis as terrorists- we arent all like that. Yes, I agree that there is a high crime rate, however, most Pakistannis in the lesser civilised areas of Pakistan suffer from extreme depths of poverty, which is somewhat the main reason for high crime rates. Research into street crime (Weldon, 2005) Are environment, or genetics, more to blame when a human being turns to a life of crime? What does it mean to be criminally insane? Is the male psyche more prone to violence than the†¦show more content†¦Secondly, the government should encourage education and give benefit to poor people.By education,people can be improved their understanding and their attitude become better.Especially,the government need to invest in the education fund.This will help poor students have the chance to study.They can find good jobs after graduating. In conclusion,street crime isShow MoreRelatedCauses Of Street Crimes790 Words   |  4 PagesThere are several reasons why street crimes are increasing in our society today. Unemployment, Violent Crimes, Lack of Education, and Poor Parenting Skills play a huge role in street crimes in our society. The reason being is because they all have an extreme effect on the children in many different ways. Like for instance, not having a father in a childs life can cause children to For example, unemployment is one of the main causes because it leads to crimes such as pick-pocketing. 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Monday, December 30, 2019

Islamic Civilization Timeline and Definition

The Islamic Civilization is today and was in the past an amalgam of a wide variety of cultures, made up of polities and countries from North Africa to the western periphery of the Pacific Ocean, and from Central Asia to sub-Saharan Africa. The vast and sweeping Islamic Empire was created in the 7th and 8th centuries CE, reaching a unity through a series of conquests with its neighbors. That initial unity disintegrated in the 9th and 10th centuries, but was reborn and revitalized again and again for more than a thousand years. Throughout the period, Islamic states rose and fell in constant transformation, absorbing and embracing other cultures and peoples, building great cities and establishing and maintaining a vast trade network. At the same time, the empire ushered in great advances in philosophy, science, law, medicine, art, architecture, engineering, and technology. A central element of the Islamic empire is the Islamic religion. Varying widely in practice and politics, each of branches and sects of the Islamic religion today espouses monotheism. In some respects, the Islamic religion could be viewed as a reform movement arising from monotheistic Judaism and Christianity. The Islamic empire reflects that rich amalgamation. Background In 622 CE, the Byzantine empire was expanding out of Constantinople, led by the Byzantine emperor Heraclius (d. 641). Heraclius launched several campaigns against the Sasanians, who had been occupying much of the Middle East, including Damascus and Jerusalem, for nearly a decade. Heracliuss war was nothing less than a crusade, intended to drive out the Sasanians and restore Christian rule to the Holy Land.    As Heraclius was taking power in Constantinople, a man named Muhammad bin Abd Allah (lived about 570–632) was beginning to preach an alternative, more radical monotheism in west Arabia: Islam, literally a submission to Gods will. The founder of the Islamic Empire was a philosopher/prophet, but what we know of Muhammad comes mostly from accounts at least two or three generations after his death. The following timeline tracks the movements of the major power center of the Islamic empire in Arabia and the Middle East. There were and are caliphates in Africa, Europe, central Asia, and Southeast Asia that have their own separate but aligned histories that are not addressed here. Muhammad The Prophet (622–632 CE) Tradition says that in 610 CE, Muhammad received the first verses of the Kuran from Allah from the angel Gabriel. By 615, a community of his followers was established in his hometown of Mecca in present-day Saudi Arabia. Muhammad was a member of a middle clan of the high-prestige Western Arabic tribe of the Quraysh, However, his family was among his strongest opponents and detractors, considering him no more than a magician or soothsayer. In 622, Muhammad was forced out of Mecca and began his hejira, moving his community of followers to Medina (also in Saudi Arabia). There he was welcomed by the local Muslims, purchased a plot of land and built a modest mosque with adjoining apartments for him to live in. The mosque became the original seat of the Islamic government, as Muhammad assumed greater political and religious authority, drawing up a constitution and establishing trade networks apart and in competition with his Quraysh cousins. In 632, Muhammad died and was buried in his mosque at Medina, today still an important shrine in Islam. The Four Rightly Guided Caliphs (632–661) After Muhammads death, the growing Islamic community was led by the al-Khulafa al-Rashidun, the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs, who were all followers and friends of Muhammad. The four were Abu Bakr (632–634), Umar (634–644), Uthman (644–656), and Ali (656–661), and to them caliph meant successor or deputy of Muhammad. The first caliph was Abu Bakr ibn Abi Quhafa and he was selected after some contentious debate within the community. Each of the subsequent rulers was also chosen according to merit and after some strenuous debate; that selection took place after the first and subsequent caliphs were murdered. Umayyad Dynasty (661–750 CE) In 661, after the murder of Ali, the Umayyads, Muhammads family the Quraysh took over the rule of the Islamic movement. The first of the line was Muawiya, and he and his descendants ruled for 90 years, one of several striking differences from the Rashidun. The leaders saw themselves as the absolute leaders of Islam, subject only to God, and called themselves Gods Caliph and Amir al-Muminin (Commander of the Faithful). The Umayyads ruled when the Arab Muslim conquest of former Byzantine and Sasanid territories were taking effect, and Islam emerged as the major religion and culture of the region. The new society, with its capital moved from Mecca to Damascus in Syria, had included both Islamic and Arabic identities. That dual identity developed in spite of the Umayyads, who wanted to segregate out the Arabs as the elite ruling class. Under Umayyad control, the civilization expanded from a group of loosely and weakly-held societies in Libya and parts of eastern Iran to a centrally-controlled caliphate stretching from central Asia to the Atlantic Ocean. Abbasid Revolt (750–945) In 750, the Abbasids seized power from the Umayyads in what they referred to as a revolution (dawla). The Abbasids saw the Umayyads as an elitist Arab dynasty, and they wanted to return the Islamic community back to the Rashidun period, seeking to govern in a universal fashion as symbols of a unified Sunni community. To do that, they emphasized their family lineage down from Muhammad, rather than his Quraysh ancestors, and transferred the caliphate center to Mesopotamia, with the caliph Abbasid Al-Mansur (r. 754–775) founding Baghdad as the new capital. The Abbasids began the tradition of the use of honorifics (al-) attached to their names, to denote their links to Allah. They continued the use as well, using Gods Caliph and Commander of the Faithful as titles for their leaders, but also adopted the title al-Imam. The Persian culture (political, literary, and personnel) became fully integrated into Abbasid society. They successfully consolidated and strengthened their control over their lands. Baghdad became the economic, cultural, and intellectual capital of the Muslim world. Under the first two centuries of Abbasid rule, the Islamic empire officially became a new multicultural society, composed of Aramaic speakers, Christians and Jews, Persian-speakers, and Arabs concentrated in the cities. Abbasid Decline and Mongol Invasion 945–1258 By the early 10th century, however, the Abbasids were already in trouble and the empire was falling apart, a result of dwindling resources and inside pressure from newly independent dynasties in formerly Abbasid territories. These dynasties included the Samanids (819–1005) in eastern Iran, the Fatimids (909–1171) and Ayyubids (1169–1280) in Egypt and the Buyids (945–1055) in Iraq and Iran. In 945, the Abbasid caliph al-Mustakfi was deposed by a Buyid caliph, and the Seljuks, a dynasty of Turkish Sunni Muslims, ruled the empire from 1055–1194, after which the empire returned to Abbasid control. In 1258, Mongols sacked Baghdad, putting an end to the Abbasid presence in the empire. Mamluk Sultanate (1250–1517) The next important rulers of the Islamic empire were the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt and Syria. This family had its roots in the Ayyubid confederation founded by Saladin in 1169. The Mamluk Sultan Qutuz defeated the Mongols in 1260 and was himself assassinated by Baybars (1260–1277), the first Mamluk leader of the Islamic empire. Baybars established himself as Sultan and ruled over the eastern Mediterranean part of the Islamic empire. Protracted struggles against the Mongols continued through the mid-14th century, but under the Mamluks, the leading cities of Damascus and Cairo became centers of learning and hubs of commerce in international trade. The Mamluks in turn were conquered by theOttomans in 1517. Ottoman Empire (1517–1923) The Ottoman Empire emerged about 1300 CE as a small principality on former Byzantine territory. Named after the ruling dynasty, the Osman, the first ruler (1300–1324), the Ottoman empire grew throughout the next two centuries. In 1516–1517, the Ottoman emperor Selim I defeated the Mamluks, essentially doubling his empires size and adding in Mecca and Medina. The Ottoman Empire began to lose power as the world modernized and grew closer. It officially came to an end with the close of World War I. Sources Anscombe, Frederick F. Islam and the Age of Ottoman Reform. Past Present 208.1 (2010): 159–89. Print.Carvajal, Josà © C. Islamicization or Islamicizations? Expansion of Islam and Social Practice in the Vega of Granada (South-East Spain). World Archaeology 45.1 (2013): 109–23. Print.Casana, Jesse. Structural Transformations in Settlement Systems of the Northern Levant. American Journal of Archaeology 111.2 (2007): 195–223. Print.Insoll, Timothy Islamic Archaeology and the Sahara. The Libyan Desert: Natural Resources and Cultural Heritage. Eds. Mattingly, David, et al. Vol. 6: The Society For Libyan Studies, 2006. Print.Larsen, Kjersti, ed. Knowledge, Renewal and Religion: Repositioning and Changing Ideological and Material Circumstances among the Swahili on the East African Coast. Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitututet, 2009. Print.Meri, Josef Waleed, ed. Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. New York: Routledge, 2006. Print.Moaddel, Mansoor. The Study o f Islamic Culture and Politics: An Overview and Assessment. Annual Review of Sociology 28.1 (2002): 359–86. Print.Robinson, Chase E. Islamic Civilization in Thirty Lives: The First 1,000 Years. Oakland: University of California Press, 2016. Print.Soares, Benjamin. The Historiography of Islam in West Africa: An Anthropologists View. The Journal of African History 55.01 (2014): 27–36. Print.